• December 4th, 2022
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The Health Impacts of Forced Relocation are Real

In October 2014, David Torres’ life took a painful detour when a stranger in a bolo tie, cowboy boots and a wide-brimmed hat strode into his living room in the Elyria neighborhood of Denver and announced: “We’re taking your house.”

The family’s corner lot was a prime piece of real estate for expansion of the outdated National Western Complex, and Denver intended to seize the private property under its power of eminent domain, if necessary. The cowboy-garbed man giving Torres notice was Kelly Leid, former executive director of the Mayor’s Office of the National Western Center. His message was that the family needed to pack up their lives and belongings, and get out of Dodge ahead of the city’s bulldozers.

“I felt like crying. My mother was in a daze,” recalls Torres, 31, the youngest son of Rose and Salvador Torres, who bought the house in 1987. “It was the house we grew up in.” While a lot more was said that day, Torres said the public taking is what stuck in the minds of those present.

Photo: Joe Mahoney /Special to The Colorado Trust David Torres stands in front of his family’s former house in the Elyria neighborhood of northeast Denver. Torres and his family were forced to relocate by the city as part of the National Western Complex redevelopment project.

What followed for Torres were three stress-filled years during which he put his life on hold.

“I became very irritable. I couldn’t sleep,” Torres says. He cut his work hours to deal with the planning, packing, house-hunting and piles of paperwork from the city. He and his mother joined the ranks of an estimated 350 people forcibly displaced from northeast Denver’s Elyria and Swansea neighborhoods to make way for a massive revitalization and gentrification project, of which the National Western Complex redevelopment is just one part.

“We did not want to leave our house and our neighborhood. I cry every time I think of it.”
Rose Torres

Torres’ story reflects a familiar narrative in U.S. cities from Portland, Ore., to Brooklyn, N.Y., where older, traditionally underserved neighborhoods are undergoing significant change. In some cases, it’s primarily because of renovation or expansion of public-facing infrastructure, like this particular project in Denver. Yet such transformation is also often due to surging demand among wealthier, mostly white newcomers for trendy urban neighborhood living. Either way, the process often results in long-established, mostly non-white residents being forced out of their homes and communities.

Leid said he had not looked forward to delivering the news, but elected to go in person to the 38 homes, businesses and commercial establishments displaced by the Western Complex makeover. “I think it is an obligation as a public official to stand before people and have those tough conversations,” he says.

Leid said his focus was on the message, including “the rules of engagement that we were going to use.” He does not remember his words and manner as Torres describes.

“No, I never used that tone,” Leid says. “I certainly felt like I was being direct and forthright with folks, and if that came across as being unemotional, certainly that was not the intent. Those were not easy meetings to attend.”

Torres’ physical and emotional responses to displacement are not uncommon. A 2014 report by the advocacy group Just Cause and the Alameda County Public Health Department in California said that gentrification has serious public health consequences that can harm a displaced person’s physical and psychological well-being.

“Gentrification results in displacement, which causes stress for people, which can exacerbate existing health conditions like high blood pressure and heart disease,” says Muntu Davis, MD, a physician and director of Alameda County’s public health department. The emotional toll can involve sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and other conditions, he said.

The Torres house is among 111 residential, business and commercial properties to be bulldozed in northeast Denver—38 by the city, 73 by the state, according to numbers from the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) and the National Western Complex. This includes the Colonial Manor Motel on East 46th Avenue, whose guests are largely people with low incomes, according to motel day manager Yong Huh. CDOT is acquiring the motel property and will help relocate 20 adults and children who have lived in the motel for at least 30 days, CDOT spokesperson Rebecca White said.

The forced removals are part of an ambitious effort to reinvent and enlarge the National Western Complex, a 112-year-old vestige of Denver’s Wild West past; rebuild a nearby portion of Interstate 70; and add commuter rail lines and stations in the Elyria and Swansea neighborhoods. While the projects are separate, the City of Denver, State of Colorado and the Regional Transportation District are partnering on scheduling, pollution monitoring, road closures and other details.

CDOT’s responsibility, in addition to submerging and capping part of I-70, is to remake neighborhood streets near the interstate and add eight-foot sidewalks, lighting and tree lawns with up to 150 trees.

Some area residents speculate that the city’s underlying goal is to help pave the way for an Olympics bid, with a wider interstate from the airport and a National Western Center campus whose master plan calls for designing space to accommodate an “Olympic large-track speed skating oval.” The Denver Sports Commission has publicly expressed interest in bringing the 2026 Winter Olympics to Colorado.

CDOT’s White brushes off the Olympics speculation as “conspiracy theory.” Erika Martínez, spokesperson for the mayor’s National Western Center office, says: “There could be a building that would fit an Olympic-size event, but that’s not why we’re building it.”

Regardless of future uses for this area of northeast Denver, Elyria and Swansea residents are feeling the impacts. Candi Cdebaca, a community leader and fourth-generation Swansea resident, has witnessed firsthand the negative health effects of forced removals since residents learned of the city’s revitalization plans.

“The physical and psychological harm of displacement is real. Nobody seems to understand the toll it takes to deal with this level of stress,” says Cdebaca, whose close friends have been among those forced out of their homes.

Still, Davis said he isn’t opposed to development or gentrification. “There are good things that come with mixed-income communities,” Davis says. “Sometimes, schools get better. Grocery stores start to show up.

“The bad part is when people are forcibly displaced.”

Most studies linking displacement to health inequities have focused on mass displacements due to natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina; or economic upheavals, such as the 2008 financial crisis, when millions of people lost their homes to foreclosure. While gentrification has been a popular subject for study, its impacts on people it displaces are not as well-documented.

Dawn Godbolt, PhD, a health equity research fellow at Global Policy Solutions, a nonprofit think tank in Washington D.C., believes the true face of gentrification remains hidden from the public due to limited data on displaced people.

“Nobody follows them. Nobody knows the story of how those families end up,” Godbolt says.

Officials in Denver say they are not tracking residents forcibly displaced from Elyria and Swansea, and are not aware of health impacts. “Our focus is on getting people to where they want to go,” says Martínez of the mayor’s National Western Center office. “If they need services, they need to tell us.”

The day the Torres family got the news that their house would be condemned to build the new National Western Center, Torres, his mother, brothers and sisters were mourning their patriarch, who had died two weeks earlier. Salvador Torres had bought the two-story Victorian house 27 years earlier, worked hard to pay off the mortgage and owned it free and clear at his death. It wasn’t the perfect location—with a busy boulevard and interstate nearby, and the National Western Complex across the street—but it was home.

“We have said that if he had not passed before this happened, this process would have taken him,” David Torres says.

Fifteen years earlier, Salvador Torres lost his auto repair business in nearby Globeville in another public-taking urban renewal project to widen another section of I-70.

“It pretty much put my dad out of business,” David Torres says. The relocated business never bounced back, and his father struggled to support his family. Salvador Torres’ death at age 69 was due to a sudden heart attack, Torres said. Whether the health impacts of losing his place of business played a role, the family will never know.

What they do know is that Salvador Torres would not have given up the family home without a fight. David Torres decided to resist the city’s efforts to relocate him and his mother to an adjoining suburb or the outskirts of the city. They wished to remain in Denver, and his mother wanted to continue to pick up her grandchildren from school five days a week without having to drive a long distance through heavy traffic.

They also fought the city’s efforts to acquire their historic home for $200,000, which their real estate broker Steve Kinney said “was not remotely appropriate or fair,” given that real estate prices in the area are soaring in anticipation of the revitalization projects.

Torres hired a lawyer, enlisted Kinney’s help and stitched together a plan. For months at a time, there were no homes for sale in his price range; those that were available were not comparable to the family’s four-bedroom, two-bathroom house. Meanwhile, Kinney battled with the firm managing the city’s eminent domain relocations, to raise the valuation of the house in line with a private appraisal. (The URA pays for residents to have their own appraisals.)

This past spring, exhausted from their ordeal and with the city’s final offer of $499,999 in hand, including moving expenses, Torres and his mother tearfully handed over their Elyria house keys to the city, and purchased a ranch-style brick bungalow in the Whittier neighborhood a few miles away.

It was not comparable to their historic home. But it was a lucky find in a good neighborhood, given Denver’s red-hot housing market. Torres is near his job at the Purina plant, and his mother is just three miles from the school where she picks up her grandchildren.

“We did not want to leave our house and our neighborhood. I cry every time I think of it,” says Rose Torres, 70, wiping away tears as she leans on a bay-like window ledge in her new dining room. “It’s where we raised our kids. It has so many memories.” Rose Torres said she cannot bear to visit the remnants of her old house, and is trying to like her new one.

David Torres’ persistence did not come without a hefty price tag. He now has a mortgage and is increasing his work schedule to 60 hours a week to make ends meet. Still, he is not as irritable or stressed, and is sleeping more.

“I just want to block out that part of my life. It has been very painful,” he says. “It sure took years off my life.”

Read the full article at: http://www.coloradotrust.org/content/story/health-impacts-forced-relocation-are-real.


Julia C. Martínez is a Writer/Journalist in Denver, Colorado. Reproduced with permission of The Colorado Trust (www.coloradotrust.org).